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  • 污水处理的方法
  • 本站编辑:四川国清源环保科技有限公司发布日期:2019-06-12 06:18 浏览次数:

按作用分

污水处理按照其作用可分为物理法生物法化学法三种。
物理法:主要利用物理作用分离污水中的非溶解性物质,在处理过程中不改变化学性质。常用的有重力分离、离心分离、反渗透、气浮等。物理法处理构筑物较简单、经济,用于村镇水体容量大、自净能力强、污水处理程度要求不高的情况。
生物法:利用微生物的新陈代谢功能,将污水中呈溶解或胶体状态的有机物分解氧化为稳定的无机物质,使污水得到净化。常用的有活性污泥法和生物膜法。生物法处理程度比物理法要高。
化学法:是利用化学反应作用来处理或回收污水的溶解物质或胶体物质的方法,多用于工业废水。常用的有混凝法、中和法、氧化还原法、离子交换法等。化学处理法处理效果好、费用高,多用作生化处理后的出水,作进一步的处理,提高出水水质。

按处理程度分

污水处理按照处理程度来分可分为一级处理、二级处理和三级处理。
一级处理主要是去除污水中呈悬浮状态的固体物质,常用物理法。一级处理后的废水BOD去除率只有20%,仍不宜排放,还须进行二级处理。二级处理的主要任务是大幅度去除污水中呈胶体和溶解状态的有机物,BOD去除率为80%~90%。一般经过二级处理的污水就可以达到排放标准,常用活性污泥法和生物膜处理法。三级处理的目的是进一步去除某种特殊的污染物质,如除氟、除磷等,属于深度处理,常用化学法。
污水工艺流程选型要求 1、对现有一级处理工艺进行加强处理效果的改造  改造应根据实际情况,充分利用现有处理设施,对现有医院中应用较多的化粪池、接触池在结构或运行方式上进行改造,必要时增设部分设施,尽可能地提高处理效果,以达到医院污水处理的排放标准。

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By role
Sewage treatment can be divided into three types: physical method, biological method and chemical method.
Physical method: The main use of physical action to separate non-soluble substances in sewage, in the process of treatment does not change chemical properties. Commonly used are gravity separation, centrifugal separation, reverse osmosis, and air flotation. The physical method is relatively simple and economical to deal with the structure. It is used in cases where the water body in the village has large capacity, strong self-purification ability, and low sewage treatment requirements.
2 Biological method: Using the metabolic function of microorganisms, the organic matter in the sewage that is dissolved or colloidal state is decomposed and oxidized into stable inorganic material, so that the sewage is purified. Commonly used are activated sludge method and Biofilm method. The degree of biological treatment is higher than the physical method.
Chemical method: It is a method that uses chemical reactions to treat or recover dissolved or colloidal substances of sewage, and is mostly used in industrial wastewater. Commonly used methods include coagulation, neutralization, Redox, and ion exchange. The chemical treatment method has a good effect and high cost. It is mostly used as a effluent after biochemical treatment to further treat and improve the water quality.
By level of treatment
Sewage treatment can be divided into primary treatment, secondary treatment and tertiary treatment according to the degree of treatment.
Primary treatment is mainly to remove solid substances in the suspended state of sewage, commonly used physical methods. The removal rate of BOD from primary treated wastewater is only 20 %, and it is still not suitable for discharge. Secondary treatment is also required. The main task of secondary treatment is to substantially remove organic matter in the colloidal and dissolved state of sewage, and the BOD removal rate is 80 % to 90 %. Generally after secondary treatment of sewage can meet the discharge standards, commonly used activated sludge and Biofilm treatment. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to further remove certain special pollutants, such as fluoride removal, phosphorus removal, etc., which are deep treatments and are commonly used chemical methods.
The existing treatment facilities should be fully utilized according to the actual conditions, and the septic tanks and contact pools used more frequently in existing hospitals should be modified in terms of structure or operation. If necessary, some additional facilities will be added to improve the treatment effect as far as possible in order to meet the emission standards for hospital sewage treatment.

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